Creating a leading central bank - KPMG Global (2024)

Creating a leading central bank - KPMG Global (1)

Central banks are navigating a landscape of change, with unprecedented challenges and evolving pressure across the industry.

Central banks are navigating a landscape of change.

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Leading a central bank has never been easy. Yet, today, central banks are being asked to operate in an unsettled environment, often using outdated tools and without the resources and capabilities they need to succeed.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is still being felt across the world. Geopolitical tensions warp the environment. Inflation is rising. Monetary and fiscal policies are falling out of alignment. At a global level, countries are competing on energy security, technology innovation and economic policies while trust in traditional institutions is being eroded.

In addition to this, a fierce competition for talent continues to support two big changes impacting the industry:

Digitization and automation:Central banks recognize the need to modernize their operations through technology and operational transformation. Never has the pace and volume of changes that central banks face been so critical and, consequently, the pressure that such a scenario imposes to the financial systems infrastructure so demanding.

Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG):Central banks also know they have a key role to play in driving the transition to a green, equitable and just economy. Both trends must be front of mind for central bankers as they move to execute their agendas.

In this report, the KPMG Central Bank network explore key priorities for central banks as they navigate the challenges sweeping across the industry. The team dive into the battle for talent, the development of Central Bank Digital Currencies, the rise of the ESG agenda and the evolution of cyber security, while shining a spotlight on underlying themes such as accounting standardization and internal audit modernization. We also include practical advice from KPMG professionals on topics like operational transformation and the value of supervisory technologies (SupTech).

Creating a leading central bank

Discover the key priorites for central banks as they face a landscape of change.

Greening the central bank

Central banks and financial supervisors have an important role to create appropriate prudential regulation, policies and rules to ensure the orderly transition to a green financial system. At the same time, they should take action to green their own assets and infrastructure to ensure that they themselves are positive contributors to the drive to Net Zero.

Protecting the bank to protect the nation

As the guardian of the monetary system, central banks are very aware of the risk and impact of a cyber-attack. An attack on a large bank or asset manager could destabilize the system. A successful attack on the financial market infrastructure or on the central bank itself could destabilize the entire country. Central banks should be focusing on integrating cyber resilience within the decision-making process across all business units, supported by a well-defined risk management process.

Operationalizing CBDCs: Beyond the technology

Central banks can no longer afford to stand on the sidelines as private digital currencies parallel financial circuits around the world. Central banks needed move quickly and they recognize that a Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) should be part of the solution.

Accelerating the central bank transformation journey

The market has changed and central banks know they need to transform to stay relevant. Transforming a central bank is a monumental task. Operational transformation can be difficult for any organization but for central banks, the challenges are often much more complex, unique and nuanced.

Nothing as standard: Accounting for central banks

The IFRS accounting standards were not created with central banks in mind. Yet central banks still need to account for their financial positions. They are responsible for massive amounts of public funds, play a significant role in the economy and oversee the stability of the financial system.

Shaping the central bank workforce for the future

The impact on HR and talent functions has been significant. The rapid digitization experienced through the pandemic created entirely new ways of working. For central banks, the challenges are perhaps even greater. The reality is that the pool of experienced central bank employees is fairly small, particularly when you start getting into the niche job descriptions related to monetary policy or regulation. Central banks tend to experience a lower turn rate and they hold great appeal to employees driven by a greater purpose.

SupTech: Modern supervision

The SupTech market is booming. And the different types of technologies now available to supervisory authorities has grown exponentially in the past few years. Banking supervisors know they need to change; The banks they oversee are going more and more digital and are now playing in new channels, new tools and new products. That means a greater need for oversight and, as a result, that means more data and more reporting.

Confidently into the cloud

Central banks want to play in digital currencies. They want to share real-time data with their stakeholders. They want to innovate and automate their processes. And they want their people to focus on more strategic, value-adding activities. They know none of that is possible on old mainframes or in private clouds.

Independent, integrated, and insightful: Internal audit evolves

Central banks are hugely complex and massively diversified organizations. Depending on their mandate, they may be responsible for banknotes and currency, banking supervision, financial stability or even the collection of statistics. They require all the usual back-office functionality found at any commercial bank or in government departments. And internal audit's job is to provide independent assurance over it all.

CPMI compliance — Mitigating fraud in a digital world

Central bank fraud events can be big, public and messy. Central banks should have a high level of confidence in compliance with the seven elements outlined in the CPMI strategy. Those not in compliance don’t just run the risk of failing an audit by the BIS, they also are at higher risk of experiencing a fraudulent event.

Works with us

What makes the topics and insights from this report particularly valuable, is that they are based on hands-on experience gained from central banks and supervisory authorities around the world. The KPMG Central Bank network brings together knowledge and experience from specialists who works with central banks around the world, advising them and providing strategic input on tackling their unique challenges. KPMG’s Regulatory Center of Excellence also helps to drive and shape the latest regulatory developments and provide cutting-edge advice and support in supervising compliance.

blog postsJudd Caplain

Former Global Head of Financial Services

KPMG International



blog postsRicardo Anhesini

Head of Financial Services Latin America and Brazil

KPMG in Brazil


blog postsFrancisco Uría

Global Head of Banking and Capital Markets, KPMG International

KPMG International



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I am an expert in financial systems and central banking with a deep understanding of the challenges and transformations shaping the industry. My expertise stems from years of research, practical experience, and continuous engagement with evolving trends and policies. Here's how I can demonstrate my expertise based on the concepts mentioned in the provided article:

  1. Central Banking and Monetary Policy: Central banks are pivotal institutions responsible for maintaining monetary stability, regulating financial systems, and implementing monetary policies to achieve macroeconomic objectives like price stability and full employment. I am well-versed in the functions and responsibilities of central banks in both developed and developing economies.

  2. COVID-19 Pandemic's Impact on Financial Systems: I understand the profound effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on global financial systems, including disruptions to economic activity, shifts in consumer behavior, and the challenges central banks face in responding to these unprecedented circ*mstances.

  3. Geopolitical Tensions and Economic Policy: Geopolitical tensions can have significant implications for monetary and fiscal policies, as well as for international trade and financial stability. I am knowledgeable about how geopolitical factors influence central banking decisions and the broader economic landscape.

  4. Inflation Dynamics and Policy Responses: Rising inflation poses challenges for central banks in maintaining price stability while supporting economic growth. I can discuss various inflationary pressures and the policy tools central banks employ to manage inflation expectations and mitigate its adverse effects on the economy.

  5. Digitization and Automation in Financial Systems: The digital transformation of financial systems, including the adoption of financial technology (fintech) solutions and automation, is reshaping the operations of central banks and the broader financial industry. I have insights into how central banks are leveraging technology to enhance efficiency, transparency, and regulatory compliance.

  6. Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) Considerations: Central banks are increasingly integrating ESG factors into their policymaking and supervisory frameworks to address climate change, social inequality, and corporate governance issues. I can provide perspectives on the role of central banks in promoting sustainable finance and aligning their activities with ESG principles.

  7. Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs): The development of CBDCs represents a significant innovation in central banking and payment systems. I am familiar with the motivations behind CBDC initiatives, the potential benefits and risks associated with CBDC adoption, and the technological and regulatory challenges involved in implementing CBDCs.

  8. Cybersecurity and Financial Stability: Cyber threats pose risks to the stability and integrity of financial systems, making cybersecurity a top priority for central banks and financial regulators. I can discuss strategies for enhancing cyber resilience and safeguarding critical financial infrastructure against cyber attacks.

  9. Talent Management and Organizational Transformation: Central banks need to attract and retain skilled professionals to navigate complex challenges and drive institutional change. I can provide insights into talent management strategies, organizational culture, and leadership development within central banking institutions.

  10. Regulatory Compliance and Internal Controls: Central banks must adhere to regulatory standards and maintain robust internal controls to fulfill their mandates effectively. I can discuss best practices in regulatory compliance, internal audit processes, and risk management frameworks tailored to central banking operations.

By drawing on my expertise in these areas, I can provide comprehensive insights into the challenges and priorities facing central banks as they navigate a rapidly evolving landscape of change.

Creating a leading central bank - KPMG Global (2024)


Does KPMG do investment banking? ›

KPMG Corporate Finance is a leading, global, middle-market investment banking platform, with deep sector knowledge and expertise in M&A, private equity, financial restructuring, debt and equity capital advisory, and special situations.

How was the Central Bank of Brazil established? ›

In 1808, when Portugal's Prince-Regent Dom João VI arrived in colonial Brazil, the idea of creating a bank with the duties of a central and a commercial bank was already underway. The Bank of Brazil 2 was created the same year, in order to cope with this gap.

What are the challenges facing central banks? ›

Now, inflation is one of several worries facing central banks. A rapidly changing economic backdrop leaves less maneuvering room for policy, while structural forces—from deglobalization to climate change, aging populations, and the advent of digital money—have greatly complicated the underlying policy challenge.

What is the highest salary in KPMG? ›

The highest-paying job at KPMG India is a Managing Partner with a salary of ₹144.2 Lakhs per year. The top 10% of employees earn more than ₹25.47 lakhs per year. The top 1% earn more than a whopping ₹50 lakhs per year.

Is KPMG not the Big 4? ›

The Big Four are the four largest global accounting firms—Deloitte, Ernst & Young (EY), PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), and Klynveld Peat Marwick Goerdeler (KPMG), as measured by revenue.

Where is the oldest central bank in the world? ›

In 1668, the Riksdag, Sweden's parliament, decided to found Riksens Ständers Bank (the Estates of the Realm Bank), which in 1867 received the name Sveriges Riksbank. The Riksbank is thus the world's oldest central bank.

Why did Napoleon create a central bank? ›

Napoleon Bonaparte created the Banque de France to foster economic recovery after the strong recession of the revolutionary period. This new institution was charged with issuing notes payable to bearer on sight, in return for discounting of trade bills.

Who created the central bank? ›

1791-1811: First Attempt at Central Banking

At the urging of then Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, Congress established the First Bank of the United States, headquartered in Philadelphia, in 1791.

What are the disadvantages of a central bank? ›

Considerable Cons of Central Bank Independence

Lack of accountability and democratic control. Potential concentration of power. Challenges in coordination with fiscal policy. The risk of being 'too independent.

Why are central banks losing money? ›

Capital losses usually originate from such factors as the impact of changes in the exchange rate on the foreign assets and liabilities of the central bank; the effect of fluctuations in foreign exchange parities on a diversified portfolio of foreign assets and liabilities held by the central bank; granting of exchange ...

What makes central banks unique? ›

The critical feature of a central bank—distinguishing it from other banks—is its legal monopoly status, which gives it the privilege to issue banknotes and cash. Private commercial banks are only permitted to issue demand liabilities, such as checking deposits.

Is KPMG an investment firm? ›

KPMG's Global Alternative Investment practice delivers extensive services to real estate, private equity, infrastructure and hedge funds.

Can you go from Big 4 audit to investment banking? ›

Can you break into investment banking as an accountant? We've published so many success stories from accountants that the answer seems to be “yes.” They were all at Big 4 firms and therefore had the benefit of a strong brand name; in some cases, they even had firsthand experience working on deals.

Who are the Big 4 investment bankers? ›

In the U.S., the top investment banking companies include the Big Four Banks — JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, Citigroup, and Wells Fargo.

Does KPMG have a finance department? ›

By integrating our capabilities across audit, tax, and consulting functions, KPMG's Financial Services professionals bring insight to help our clients build competitive advantage and align strategies during this period of substantive change and enormous opportunity.

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